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と Particle (Exhaustive Listing)

と Particle (Exhaustive Listing)

と Particle (Exhaustive Listing) Japanese Grammar Lesson

Grammar Type: Particle

Essential Meaning: And


  • Noun と Noun
    • E.g. ミルクとジュース [Milk and juice]


  • と (Exhaustive listing) is used to list nouns and noun phrases exhaustively. For example, the sentence 「AとBがきだ」means “I like A and B, and that’s all.” To make an exhaustive listing of verbs or adjectives instead of nouns, the て-Form should be used instead.
    • E.g. *ここのハンバーガーはやすいといい。[This place’s hangers are cheap and good.] と (Exhaustive listing) cannot be used to list adjectives. The て-Form should be used instead.
    • E.g. *ウイルソンさんは日本にほんったと木村きむらさんにあった。[Mr. Wilson went to Japan and Met Kimura-san.] と (Exhaustive listing) cannot be used to list verbs. The て-Form should be used instead.
    • E.g. *マークはコンサートにったとクリスは映画えいがに行った。[Mark went to a concert, and Chris went to the movies.] と (Exhaustive listing) cannot be used to list verbs. The て-Form should be used instead.
  • と (Exhaustive listing) is typically omitted after the final noun in the list, but it can be included optionally. Thus the listing A, B and C is most commonly written as AとBとC rather than AとBとCと.
  • Note that a list of noun phrases (e.g. Noun 1 と Noun 2 と Noun 3) is itself a noun phrase and can be used anywhere that noun phrases can be used (i.e. as the subject, direct object, indirect object, et cetera).
    • E.g. マイクとジョンは学生がくせいです。[Mike and John are students.] In this example, the compound noun phrase “Mike and John” is the topic of the sentence.
  • With a noun phrase such as Noun 1 と Noun 2, the relationship between Noun 1 and Noun 2 may be ambiguous without additional context. For example, in the sentence 山本やまもとさんとスミスさんはテニスをしています。[Yamamoto-san and Smith-san are playing tennis.] In this sentence, it is clear that both Yamamoto-san and Smith-san are playing tennis, but it is unclear whether or not they are playing tennis together. The sentence can be unambiguously restated with と (Reciprocal Relationship) to express the idea that the two are playing together.
    • E.g. 山本やまもとさんはスミスさんとテニスをしています。[Yamamoto-san is playing tennis with Smith-san.] In this case, the two are unambiguously playing tennis together.
  • is a similar particle used to list noun phrases in-exhaustively.
    • E.g. ミルズさんやハリスさんがた。[Mr. Mills and Mr. Harris came (among others).]
    • E.g. これはスプーンやフォークでべる。[Around here we eat with utensils such as spoons and forks (among other things).]
  • The に (Existence) particle can also be used to list nouns exhaustively when one or more secondary nouns are added to a main noun (marked by ) in order to create a list of indispensable objects. In other words, the secondary nouns are implied to be indispensable aspects of or accompaniments to the main noun.
    • E.g. 毎朝まいあさみそしるとごはんべる。[I eat miso soup and rice every morning.] This sentence simply conveys an exhaustive list of things that the speaker eats every morning.
    • E.g. 毎朝まいあさみそしるにごはんべる。[I eat rice with my miso soup every morning.] This sentence implies that rice has been added to miso soup as an indispensable aspect of the speaker’s daily breakfast.
    • E.g. あのひとはいつもしろいシャツとあかいチョッキをている。[That person always wears a white shirt and a red vest.]
    • E.g. あのひとはいつもしろいシャツにあかいチョッキをている。[That person always wears a red vest in addition to a white shirt.] The implication is that the red vest is an indispensable addition to the white shirt.

Example Sentences:

マイクとジョンは学生がくせいです。[Mike and John are students.]

わたし英語えいご日本語にほんごはなす。[I speak English and Japanese.]

ボブは来年らいねんドイツとフランスとスペインへくつもりだ。[Bob intends to go to Germany, France, and Spain next year.]

ステーキはナイフとフォークでべる。[Steak is eaten with a fork and knife.]

山本やまもとさんとスミスさんがテニスをしている。[Yamamoto-san and Smith-san are playing tennis.]

日本語にほんごとトルコている。[Japanese and Turkish resemble one another.]

WILD Examples:

At 1:35, listen for this line: まえおやおれおやどちらもおなじだ大切たいせつにしろ [Your parents and my parents are one and the same, so let’s cherish them.]

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