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する (Permanent Attribute)

する (Permanent Attribute)

する (Permanent Attribute) Japanese Grammar Lesson

Grammar Type: Irregular Verb

Essential Meaning: To have (some inalienable attribute)


  • Subject + Adjective + Attribute + をしている
    • E.g. このつくえまるかたち をしている。[This desk has a round shape.]


  • する (Permanent Attribute) is another way of stating X は Y が. It describes a particular part or attribute of the subject when that attribute is inalienably possessed by the subject (i.e. the subject cannot fundamentally exist without the part or the attribute in question). For example, a table cannot exist without legs, so legs are an inalienable feature of a table.
    • E.g. このつくえまるかたちをしている。[This desk has a round shape.] A desk necessarily has some shape. In this case, the desk has a round shape.
  • This usage of する takes the structure Subject + Adjective + Attribute + をしている. Note that する (Permanent Attribute) always takes the stative form している in a main clause, but in a relative clause it may also take the past tense. The following examples all mean essentially the same thing:
    • E.g. 洋子ようこながあしをしている。[Yoko has long legs.]
    • E.g. ながあしをした洋子ようこ [Long-legged Yoko] This is a relative clause rather than a complete sentence.
    • E.g. ながあしをしている洋子ようこ [Long-legged Yoko] This is a relative clause rather than a complete sentence.
    • E.g. 洋子ようこあしなが [Yoko has long legs.]

Example Sentences:

洋子ようこながあしをしている。[Yoko has long legs.]

一男かずお丈夫じょうぶからだをしています。[Kazuo has a strong body.]

このつくえまるかたちをしている。[This desk has a round shape.]

WILD Examples:

The opening line of this song goes as follows: はなあめうみ信号機しんごうきも、すべうたかたちをしている [The flowers, the rain, the sea, and even the traffic lights, all of them have the the shape of a song]

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