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し (Conjunction)

し (Conjunction)

し (Conjunction) Japanese Grammar Lesson

Grammar Type: Conjunction

Essential Meaning: Not only X, but also Y / And what’s more~

Construction: 

  • (Verb / い-Adjective) + し
    • E.g. はなすし [X speaks. And what’s more…]
  • (な-Adjective Stem / Noun) + [だ / だった] + し
    • E.g. しずかだし [X is quiet. And what’s more…]
    • E.g. 先生せんせいだし [X is a teacher. And what’s more…]

Notes:

  • し (Conjunction) is similar to the て-Form in that it is used to string together multiple clauses. The difference between the two is that the て-Form connects clauses neutrally (i.e. A, and B, and C) whereas し (Conjunction) connects clauses emphatically (i.e. A, and on top of that B, and what’s more, C, AND D.)
    • E.g. 仕事しごともあったし、結婚けっこんもできたし、とてもうれしいです。[Not only did I find a job, but I was able to get married, so I am very happy.] In this case, two instances of し are used to connect three clauses emphatically.
  • し (Conjunction) can be used at the end of a sentence to weaken and obscure the cause / reason and to imply that there are further unstated reasons.
    • E.g. A: 明日あした映画えいがきませんか。B: えっ、明日あしたですか。明日あした試験しけんがあるし。[A: Should we go see a movie tomorrow? B: Hmm, tomorrow? I have a test tomorrow…] The implication of し in this instance is that Speaker B has further unstated reasons beyond the test itself (e.g. studying, commuting, etc.) that prevent him from being able to go to the movie.
  • If the speaker wants to be formal, the clause that precedes し (Conjunction) may be in the formal form as long as the main clause is also in the formal form.
    • E.g. 今日きょう天気てんきもいいですし、どこかへきましょうか。[The whether is nice today (among other reasons), so shall we go somewhere today?]

Example Sentences:

今日きょうはテニスもしたし、映画えいがた。[Today I played tennis, and on top of that I watched a movie.]

ここはなつあついし、ふゆさむい。[As for this place, summers are hot AND winters are cold.]

このアパートはきれいだし、やすい。[This apartment is clean, and on top of that it’s cheap.]

あそびたいんですが明日あした試験しけんだしあそべない。[I want to play, but I have a test tomorrow (among other reasons) so I can’t play.]

仕事しごともあったし、結婚けっこんもできたし、とてもうれしいです。[Not only did I find a job, but I was able to get married, so I am very happy.]

今日きょう天気てんきもいいですし、どこかへきましょうか。[The whether is nice today (among other reasons), so shall we go somewhere today?]

あのひと美人びじんだし、あたまもいい。[That person is beautiful, and on top of that she’s intelligent.]

切符きっぷってあるし、是非ぜひにいきましょう。[The ticket has already been bought (among other reasons), so let’s go by all means.]

WILD Examples:

At around 1:45, you can hear the line: まだローンはのこってるおれまだ世界せかいていない [I still have loans remaining, and on top of that I still haven’t seen the world.]

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