し (Conjunction) Japanese Grammar Lesson
Grammar Type: Conjunction
Essential Meaning: Not only X, but also Y / And what’s more~
- (Verb / い-Adjective) + し
- E.g. 話すし [X speaks. And what’s more…]
- (な-Adjective Stem / Noun) + [だ / だった] + し
- E.g. 静かだし [X is quiet. And what’s more…]
- E.g. 先生だし [X is a teacher. And what’s more…]
- し (Conjunction) is similar to the て-Form in that it is used to string together multiple clauses. The difference between the two is that the て-Form connects clauses neutrally (i.e. A, and B, and C) whereas し (Conjunction) connects clauses emphatically (i.e. A, and on top of that B, and what’s more, C, AND D.)
- E.g. 仕事もあったし、結婚もできたし、とてもうれしいです。[Not only did I find a job, but I was able to get married, so I am very happy.] In this case, two instances of し are used to connect three clauses emphatically.
- し (Conjunction) can be used at the end of a sentence to weaken and obscure the cause / reason and to imply that there are further unstated reasons.
- E.g. A: 明日映画に行きませんか。B: えっ、明日ですか。明日は試験があるし。[A: Should we go see a movie tomorrow? B: Hmm, tomorrow? I have a test tomorrow…] The implication of し in this instance is that Speaker B has further unstated reasons beyond the test itself (e.g. studying, commuting, etc.) that prevent him from being able to go to the movie.
- If the speaker wants to be formal, the clause that precedes し (Conjunction) may be in the formal form as long as the main clause is also in the formal form.
- E.g. 今日は天気もいいですし、どこかへ行きましょうか。[The whether is nice today (among other reasons), so shall we go somewhere today?]
今日はテニスもしたし、映画も見た。[Today I played tennis, and on top of that I watched a movie.]
ここは夏は暑いし、冬は寒い。[As for this place, summers are hot AND winters are cold.]
このアパートはきれいだし、安い。[This apartment is clean, and on top of that it’s cheap.]
遊びたいんですが明日は試験だし遊べない。[I want to play, but I have a test tomorrow (among other reasons) so I can’t play.]
仕事もあったし、結婚もできたし、とてもうれしいです。[Not only did I find a job, but I was able to get married, so I am very happy.]
今日は天気もいいですし、どこかへ行きましょうか。[The whether is nice today (among other reasons), so shall we go somewhere today?]
あの人は美人だし、頭もいい。[That person is beautiful, and on top of that she’s intelligent.]
切符は買ってあるし、是非見にいきましょう。[The ticket has already been bought (among other reasons), so let’s go by all means.]
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