で Particle (Time) Japanese Grammar Lesson
Grammar Type: Particle
Essential Meaning: At / On / In (indicates the time at which some activity terminates)
- Time Noun + で
- E.g. 9時で [At 9 o’clock]
- X + で (Time) conveys the idea that some action or event lasts until X. In other words, the activity terminates AT time X.
- E.g. このコンサートは十時で終わります。[This concert last until 10.]
- When referring to the time at which an activity terminates, で (Time) is interchangeable with に (Time) with a slight difference in nuance. Namely, X + で (Time) emphasizes the period leading up to X, while X + に (Time) emphasizes the specific time of termination.
- E.g. 春学期は五月十日で終わる。[The spring term lasts until May 10th.]
- E.g. 春学期は五月十日に終わる。[The spring term ends on May 10th.]
- When the で particle refers to a duration of time (as opposed to the time of termination), it is interpreted as で (Means / Instrument) rather than で (Time). In other words, Duration + で refers to the amount of time used to complete some task.
- E.g. 山田さんは一週間でそのレポートを書いた。[Yamada-san took one week to write that report.]
私のパスポートは六月できれる。[My passport is valid until June.]
アメリカに来てから今日で三年になる。[From the time I came to America up until today, it’s been three years.]
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