あげる Japanese Grammar Lesson
Grammar Type: Group 2 Verb
Essential Meaning: To give
- Object + を + あげる
- E.g. ジョンにケーキをあげる。[I give a cake to John.]
- E.g. クリスにプレゼントをあげた。[I gave a present to Chris.]
- あげる describes an act of giving in which the speaker (or someone with whom the speaker empathizes) is the one doing the giving. In other words, あげる conveys the idea of “I give X to Y“. Generally speaking, when the speaker is involved in the sentence, the sentence should take his or her viewpoint.
- Be careful not to mistake あげる for くれる or もらう. くれる describes an act of giving in which the speaker is the indirect object, rather than the subject (e.g. “Chris gives a pen to me”), and もらう describes an act of RECEIVING in which the speaker is the subject (e.g. “I received a pen from Chris”).
- The humble version of あげる is さしあがる and the casual version is やる. If the speaker gives something to someone of a much higher status (e.g. a boss), さしあがる is appropriate. If the speaker give something to someone / something of a much lower status (e.g. giving food to a dog), やる is appropriate.
私はクリスにペンをあげる。[I give a pen to Chris.]
僕は犬にエサをやった。[I gave food to a dog.]
私は上司にプレゼントをさしあがった。[I gave a present to my boss.]
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